A. BackgroundInstinctive nursing nursing born since birth along with the creation of human development is influenced by the more advanced nursing human civilization is growing nursing. The development is influenced by:Care and treatment of antiquity.People in ancient times lived in primitive circumstances. Nevertheless, they have been able to little knowledge and skill in caring for or treating. The job "caring" work based on instinct (instinct) à à animal instinct "mother instinct" (maternal instincts) which is an instinct in the hinge on the type of maintenance (protection of children, care for the weak. Care and treatment is practically done by those primitive people, such as: Caring for and treat injuries, Lower heat to give a lot of drinking water or treatment with water (compress), Opening absoes using sharp stones, end its bleeding by using hot stones, use of grow- plants as treatment of diseaseInfluence confidence in the care and treatment of human antiquity embraced belief / religion "animism" linking the occurrence of this disease dnegan animist beliefs, so they assume that people suffering from pain caused by intruding spirits (spirits) that. People who pay attention to the signs of the disease à "experts" in taking action against the ill treatment. Experts are called experts kemudiajn drugs = shaman healers in treatment, among others, pay attention to rules as follows:B. Problem formulation
1. Knowing the History of Nursing World.2. Knowing the History of Nursing in Indonesia
C. PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to give a little information to prospective nurses in Indonesia, especially in the city of Kendari on the history of nursing world and in Indonesia.
A. Nursing History of the WorldBerkualiatas nursing service activities have been started since the first Muslim nurse Siti Rufaidah at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, who is always trying to provide the best service for the needy regardless of whether his clients are rich or poor. Some are known as Rufaidah bint Sa'ad / Rufaidah Al-Asalmiya where in recent record of publications mention the Al-Asalmiya Rufaidah, who started the practice of nursing days of the Prophet Muhammad is the first Muslim nurse (Kasule, 2003; Mansour & Fikry, 1987). While the history of nursing in Europe and America know Florence Nightingale as the pioneer of modern nursing, the State in the middle east to give this status to Rufaidah, a Muslim nurse (Jan, 1996). Talents of struggle and heroism Rufaidah verbally handed down from generation to generation in the Muslim nurses, especially in Saudi Arabia and be forwarded to the modern generation of nurses in Saudi and Middle East 2) (Miller Rosser, 2006)During this same nurse Indonesia in particular is more familiar with Florence Nightingale as a figure of nursing, which may be more due to the concepts of modern nursing who adopted the west litelature.Florence Nightingale (12 May 1820-13 August 1910) is a pioneer of modern nursing, a writer and statistician. He is known by the name Angel Illuminated (english The Lady With The Lamp) for his services who fearlessly gather victims of war in the Crimean War, the peninsula of Crimea, RussiaFlorence Nightingale to revive the concept of hospital sanitation and tips nurses. He gave emphasis to the careful observation of the needs of patients and preparation of detailed reports using statistics as an argument change for the better in the field of nursing before the British rule.Florence was born into a wealthy family and grew up as a charming and vivacious woman who has a bright future. After all the suffering he saw during the war in the peninsula of Krim in Russia in 1858, causing the heart Florence Nightingale was touched to see the suffering of the wounded soldier and left alone in a dirty hospital .. Florence Nightingale is known as a nurse and the first theorists who have a body of nursing knowledge. Nigtingale emphasize the focus of nursing interventions is to create a conducive environment for human beings to live a healthy life. Most of the ideas are still relevant to the Nightingale nursing education in Indonesia in the present and future.Instinctive nursing nursing born since birth along with the creation of human development is influenced by the more advanced nursing human civilization is growing nursingThe development is influenced by the care and treatment of antiquityPeople in ancient times lived in primitive circumstances. Nevertheless, they have been able to little knowledge and skill in caring for or treating. Experts are called experts kemudiajn drugs = shaman healers in treatment, among others, pay attention to rules as follows:A belief that suggests that nature itself provides clues about the drug to be used as a bloody wound in a bandage or cloth give a red / red leaves. If the jaundice was given medicine to drink from the roots of the plant or plant skin is yellow.A doctrine that believe that there is kekeuatanm power transfer. For example: At the time a woman will give birth, given the soaking water and leaves it wide open all the doors.Maintenance on some of the nation and the State.a. EgyptNation in the days of ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods. Famous among other gods Isis. They assume that the god of this interest to the sick and provide help when the patient is sleeping. Established the temple which is the first hospital in EgyptKetabiban. Science ketabiban especially surgery has been known by the ancient Egyptians (± 4800 BC). In carrying out his duties as a physician he used a splint (spalk), equipment pads, he has a knowledge of anatomy, Hygienr general and about drugs. In books written in the papyrus inside contained about 700 kinds of prescription drugs from Egyptb. Babylon and SyriaThe science of anatomy and medicine herbs have been known to the nation since centuries BC Babylon. In one article which states that in 680 BC, people have learned how to hold the blood from the nose and treat jerawant in advance. Nation Babylon worshiped gods therefore care or treatment based on trust.
c. Ancient JewishScience of the Jews many obtained from the Egyptians. For example: ways of giving treatment that famous person is Moses. It is also known as an expert on hygiene. Under his leadership the nation Yahgudi advancing the great interest to the general cleanliness and hygiene.Health legislation of the Jews became the basis for modern hygiene where the ways and rules in accordance with the bacteriology of today, for example:1. Peminilah inspection and food will be eaten2. Holding human waste disposal3. Prohibition of eating pork because it can cause an illness4. Notify the authorities if there is a dangerous disease, so that action can be taken
d. IndiaIndians (Hindus) in ancient times, has been embraced Brahmins, in addition to worship and ask for help to god (dikuil) to heal the sick. In India there has been a hospital, especially in the North during Asoka's reign Rasa, ± 8 RS in some schools and then used as treatment and caree. China
Chinese people are already familiar with them gonorhoea venereal disease and syphilis. Vaccination has also been done since 1000 BC serial science and psychotherapy. People who are famous in ketabiban:1. Lung Seng Known as the "Father of Medicine, who specializes in internal medicine and has been using drugs from plants and minerals (salts).'s Famous motto is Look, Listen, Ask, Taste.2. Chang Chung Ching ± 200 Sm have been working on lavement using bamboo.
B. A history of nursing in IndonesiaThe development of nursing in Indonesia affected by social and economic conditions of colonial Dutch colonial rule, Britain and Japan as well as the situation of the government of Indonesia after Indonesia's independence be distinguished by:1. The period before independenceDutch colonial period I. At this time the nurses came from the natives called VELPLEGEK as zieken oppaser as a hospital guard. Dutch government efforts in the field of health are:- Established the hospital I Binnen Hospital in Jakarta in 1799Founded the hospital II Butten Hospital- Establish the army health service (military gezond dients herds)- Formatting the People's Health Service (Burgerlijke gezandherds dienst)
British colonial times, the Governor-General Rafles very concerned about people's motto: Health is man's. His efforts in the field of health:1. Vaccination in general2. Reorganize the way care of patients with psychiatric disorders3. Attention to health on the prisonersJapanese colonial era led to the development of nursing suffered a setback which is also the dark ages of the world of nursing in Indonesia. Setbacks can be seen on the work done by those nurses who are not educated, head of the RS was taken over by the Japanese people, drugs are very less. Outbreaks of disease occur everywhere.2. Age of independenceEfforts in the field of health in 1949 began to build hospitals and kesehatn hall. In 1952 started construction of the school nurse school nurse and school nurse teachers junior high level in 1962 began to be established for professional nursing education.1962-present nursing began to develop rapidlyIn 1962 started a lot of standing academy nursing (Nursing Academy) in 1985 nursing science courses (PSIK) organized by the university's medical school graduates I Indonesia in 1988. Its impact is to improve nursing care, nursing process approach and enhance the role and functions of nurses.Nursing psychiatric illness in psychiatric patients IndonesiaTahun 1800 was collected in the wards and treatment are guarding. Mental hospital was first established in 1875 in Bogor Cilandak dnegan capacity of 400 people. Mental hospital in Lawang second in 1894 with a capacity of 3300 patients. The third mental hospital Prof RSJ. Dr. Soeroyo in Magelang in 1923 with a capacity of 1400 patients.Nursing education new life opened in September 1940 in Bogor with the course. Currently held in a modern soul care. Dibangsal-wards, treatment with shock therapy, using sleep meds dnegan music, sport and recreation.The context of nursing itself heavily influenced by the history of nursing in Islam, Arab culture and beliefs in the belief in health from the viewpoint of Islam (Islamic health belief) and the values obtained from the profession of nursing education. Unlike the western view of nursing in the State, the spiritual beliefs of Islam will be reflected in their culture.In Indonesia may be the same thing also happened to live how nursing and developing Islamic harmony line in the acceleration of nursing care demands, the complexity of the disease, the development of health technologies and health informatics in order to keep remembering and menteladani historical development of nursing was started by Rufaidah bint Sa'ad
A. ConclusionBerkualiatas nursing service activities have been started since the first Muslim nurse Siti Rufaidah at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, who is always trying to provide the best service for the needy regardless of whether his clients are rich or poor. During this same nurse Indonesia in particular is more familiar with Florence Nightingale as a figure of nursing, which may be more due to the concepts of modern nursing who adopted the west litelature.The development of nursing in Indonesia affected by social and economic conditions of colonial Dutch colonial rule, Britain and Japan as well as the situation of Indonesia after Indonesia's independence of governmentB. SuggestionThe emergence of the history of nursing in Indonesia because of the lack of public knowledge about health issues. Besides the lack of professional manpower to provide nursing care for the people of Indonesia in particular. In the development of Science keperwatan began entering tahap_tahap or hierarchy of life such as diplomas, bachelor, profession.With this paper, we hope to be able to provide accurate information about the history of nursing world and Indonesia and with the adjustment of educational standards is expected to be increasingly targeted nursing education and nursing personnel that result can be qualified and have professional competence in handling patients.